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{{Infobox Television
| show_name = Rocko's Modern Life
| image = [[Image:RMLlogo.JPG|180px]]
| caption =
| format = [[Animated series]], [[Comedy]]
| camera =
| picture_format =
| audio_format =
| runtime = 22 minutes (11 per episode) (approx.)
| creator = [[Joe Murray]]
| developer = [[Nickelodeon (TV channel)|Nickelodeon]]
| producer = [[Joe Murray]]
| executive_producer = Joe Murray
| starring=[[Carlos Alazraqui]]<br/>[[Tom Kenny]]<br/>[[Doug Lawrence]]<br/>[[Charles Adler (voice actor)|Charles Adler]]<br/>[[Linda Wallem]]
| narrated =
| opentheme = "Rocko's Modern Life"
| accessdate = 2006-10-02
| language = [[English language|English]]
| endtheme =
| country = {{USA}}
| language = [[English language|English]]
| network = [[Nickelodeon (TV channel)|Nickelodeon]]
| first_aired = September 18, 1993
| last_aired =November 24, 1996
| num_seasons = 4
| num_episodes = 52 <!-- (104 half-episodes) -->
| list_episodes = List of Rocko's Modern Life episodes
| website =}}

'''''Rocko's Modern Life''''' is an American TV [[animated series]], the fourth of [[Nickelodeon (TV channel)|Nickelodeon's]] [[Nicktoons]], created by [[Joe Murray]] and aired for four seasons from 1993 to 1996. The show was based around the [[surreal humour|surreal]], parodic adventures of an [[anthropomorphic]] [[wallaby]] named [[Rocko]], and his life in the city of O-Town. The program was produced by [[Joe Murray Productions]] and [[Games Productions]]. The show is laden with [[double entendre]]s, sexual [[innuendo]]s, and social commentary, some of which have been edited in rebroadcasts.<ref>[http://digg.com/comedy/Rocko_s_Modern_Life_Innuendo_2?FC=PRCK0 DIgg - Rocko's Modern Life Innuendo]</ref> ''Rocko's Modern Life'' ended production in 1996.<ref>"[http://www.joemurraystudio.com/tv/rocko.shtml Rocko's Modern Life]," ''[[Joe Murray]] Studio''</ref>

== History ==

Originally, the character Rocko appeared in an unpublished comic book titled ''Travis''. Murray tried selling the comic book in the late 1980s, between illustrating jobs, and did not find success in getting it in production. Many other characters appeared in various sketchbooks. He described the early 1990s animation atmosphere as "ripe for this kind of project. We took some chances that would be hard to do in these current times," with the "current times" being the 1990s.<ref name="MurrayRockoHome">"[http://joemurraystudio.com/tv/rocko.shtml Rocko's Modern Life]," ''[[Joe Murray]] Studio''</ref> Murray wanted funding for his independent film "My Dog Zero," so he wanted Nickelodeon to pre-buy television rights for the series. He presented a pencil test to [[Nickelodeon Studios]], which afterward became interested in buying and airing the show.

[[Linda Simensky]], then in charge of animation development in Nickelodeon, described the [[Nicktoons]] lineup and concept to Murray. He originally felt skepticism towards the concept of creating a Nicktoon as he disliked television cartoons. Simensky told him that Nicktoons differed from other cartoons. He told her that he believed that "My Dog Zero" would not work as a cartoon. He then researched Nickelodeon at the library and found that Nickelodeon's "attitude was different than regular TV." Murray combed through his sketchbooks, developed the ''Rocko's Modern Life'' concept, and submitted it to Nickelodeon, believing that the concept would likely be rejected. According to Murray, around three or four months later he had "forgotten about" the concept and was working on "My Dog Zero" when Simensky informed him that Nickelodeon wanted a pilot episode. Murray said that he was glad that he would get funding for "My Dog Zero."<ref name="TrainorMurray">"[http://www.title14.com/rocko/contributors/murray.html Lisa (Kiczuk) Trainor interviews Joe Murray, creator of Rocko's Modern Life]," ''The Rocko's Modern Life FAQ''</ref> On his website he describes "My Dog Zero" was "that film that Linda Simensky saw which led me to Rocko."<ref>"[http://joemurraystudio.com/indie/indie.shtml Independent Filmwork]," ''[[Joe Murray]] Studio''</ref> "Sucker for the Suck-O-Matic" was originally written as the pilot; the executives decided that [[Heffer Wolfe]], one of the characters, would be "a little too weird for test audiences." Murray, instead of removing Heffer from "Sucker for the Suck-O-Matic," decided to write "[[Trash-O-Madness]]" as the pilot episode.<ref name="TrainorMurray"/>

When the series was in development prior to the release of the first episode, the series had the title '''''The Rocko Show'''''.<ref name="Sumares">"[http://www.title14.com/rocko/unknowns/ A Bit of Trivia From Paul Sumares]," ''The Rocko's Modern Life FAQ''</ref> Murray initially believed that he would create one season, move back to the [[San Francisco Bay Area]], and "clean up the loose ends I had left hanging." Murray said that he felt surprised when Nickelodeon approved new seasons;<ref name="TrainorMurray"/> Nickelodeon renewed the series for its second season in December 1993.<ref name="Brandweek">Warner, Fara. "Nick Rock(o)s Liscencing Boat." ''Brandweek''. Volume 35, Issue 5. January 31, 1994.</ref>

After season 3 he decided to hand the project to [[Stephen Hillenburg]], who performed most work for season 4; Murray continued to manage the cartoon.<ref name="TrainorMurray"/> He said that he would completely leave the production after season 4. He said also that he encouraged the network to continue production, but Nickelodeon eventually decided to cancel the series. He described all fifty-two episodes as "top notch", and in his view the quality of a television show may decline as production continues "when you are dealing with volume."<ref name="TrainorMurray"/> On his website he said that, "In some ways it succeeded and in some ways failed. All I know it developed its own flavor and an equally original legion of fans."<ref name="MurrayRockoHome"/> In a 1997 interview Murray said that he at times wondered if he could re-start the series; he feels the task would be difficult.<ref name="TrainorMurray"/>

== Production ==

Murray's Joe Murray Productions and [[Games Animation]] rented office space on [[Ventura Boulevard]] in the [[Studio City, Los Angeles, California|Studio City]] neighborhood of the [[San Fernando Valley]] region of [[Los Angeles]], [[California]].<ref>"[http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=PBPB&p_theme=pbpb&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EAF863BDBA876E0&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM Animators Feel Free With `Rocko']." ''[[The Palm Beach Post]]''</ref> The production moved to a different office building on Vineland Avenue in Studio City. Executives did not share space with the creative team.<ref name="October242008">"[http://joemurraystudio.com/blog/?p=544 October 24, 2008]." ''Joe Murray Studio''. Accessed October 24, 2008.</ref><ref name="Where">"[http://www.joemurraystudio.com/tv/rocko_factoid5.shtml Where Rocko the series was produced]," ''[[Joe Murray]] Studio''</ref> [[Rough Draft Studios]] assembled the animation.<ref name="FurnissRoughDraft">[[Maureen Furniss|Furniss, Maureen]]. ''Art in Motion: Animation Aesthetics''. ''[[Indiana University Press]]''. [http://books.google.com/books?id=aQ4mrirF5nkC&pg=PA66&dq=Rocko%27s+Modern+Life&lr=&sig=7NiWtolL90TNGYyoU3eXilMAZyI 66].</ref> According to Murray, as ''Rocko's Modern Life'' was his first television series, he did not know about the atmosphere of typical animation studios. Murray said that he opted to operate his studio in a similar manner to the operation of his [[Saratoga, California|Saratoga]], [[California]] studio, which he describes as "Very relaxed."<ref name="TrainorMurray"/> His cadre included many veterans who, according to him, described the experience as "the most fun they had ever had!" He, saying that the atmosphere was "not my doing," credited his team members for collectively contributing. <ref name="TrainorMurray"/> Murray described the daily atmosphere at the studio as "very loose," adding that the rules permitted all staff members to use the paging system to make announcements. He stated that one visitor compared the environment of the production studio to "[[preschool]] without supervision." <ref name="October242008"/><ref name="Where"/> Murray stated that 70 people in the United States and over 200 people in [[South Korea]] animated the series. <ref name="TrainorMurray"/>

Murray produced the pilot episode, "[[Trash-O-Madness]]," at his studio in Saratoga; he animated half of the episode, and the production occurred entirely in the United States, with animation in Saratoga and processing in [[San Francisco]]. <ref>"[http://www.joemurraystudio.com/tv/rocko_factoid4.shtml How the Pilot was produced]," ''Joe Murray Studio''</ref> While directing during recording sessions, Murray preferred to be on the stage with the actors instead of "behind glass" in a control room, which he describes as "the norm" while making animated series. <ref name="RockoArchivesMurray">"[http://www.joemurraystudio.com/tv/rocko_archives.shtml Rocko's Modern Life Archives]," ''[[Joe Murray]] Studio''</ref> He believes that, due to his lack of experience with children, ''Rocko's Modern Life'' "skewed kind of older."<ref name="CNMurrayInterview">"[http://web.archive.org/web/20080131191907/http://turnerinfo.turner.com/presskititem.aspx?P=CARTOON&CID01=98376fcf-3e6c-44a0-aae0-9e41e16079ef&CID02=a97e4cd3-7a0b-4b0c-b126-1a03a9c9ca06 Q & A with Joe Murray]," ''[[Cartoon Network (United States)|Cartoon Network]] Pressroom''</ref> Murray noted, "There's a lot of big kids out there. People went to see '[[Roger Rabbit]]' and saw all these characters they'd grown up with and said, 'Yeah, why don't they have something like that anymore?'"<ref>Zimmerman, Kevin. "Not just for kids anymore." ''[[Daily Variety]]''. March 23, 1995.</ref> When he began producing Rocko, he says that his experience in independent films initially led him to attempt to micromanage many details in the production. He said that the approach, when used for production of television shows, was "driving me crazy." This led him to allow for other team members to manage aspects of the ''Rocko's Modern Life'' production.<ref name="CNMurrayInterview"/>

Several members of the ''Rocko'' crew would later join Hillenburg in production of another Nicktoon, ''[[SpongeBob SquarePants]],'' including [[Spongebob (character)|SpongeBob]] voice [[Tom Kenny]], who voiced [[Heffer Wolfe]] and other characters on ''Rocko's Modern Life.''

=== Writing style ===

The writers aimed to create stories that they describe as "strong" and "funny." The writers, including [[George Maestri]] and [[Martin Olson]], often presented ideas to Murray while eating [[hamburgers]] at Rocky's, a restaurant formerly located on Lankershim in the [[North Hollywood, Los Angeles, California|North Hollywood]] section of the San Fernando Valley. He took his team members on "writing trips" to places such as Rocky's, the [[LaBrea Tar Pits]], and the wilderness. If he liked the story premises, the writers produced full outlines from the premises. Outlines approved by both him and Nickelodeon became ''Rocko's Modern Life'' episodes. Maestri describes some stories as originating from "real life" and some originating from "thin air." <ref>"[http://www.title14.com/rocko/contributors/maestri.html Lisa (Kiczuk) Trainor interviews George Maestri, story writer for Rocko's Modern Life]," ''The Rocko's Modern Life FAQ''</ref><ref>"[http://www.title14.com/rocko/contributors/martin.html Lisa (Kiczuk) Trainor interviews Martin Olson, writer for Rocko's Modern Life]," ''The Rocko's Modern Life FAQ''</ref> Murray stated that each episode of ''Rocko's Modern Life'' stemmed from the personal experiences of himself and/or one or more of the directors or writers. <ref name="TrainorMurray"/> He said that he did not intend to use formulaic writing seen in other cartoons; he desired content that "broke new ground" and "did things that rode the edge," and that could be described as "unexpected." He did not hire writers who had previous experience with writing cartoons, instead hiring writers who worked outside of animation, including improv actors and comic artists. He said that story concepts that "ever smacked close to some formula idea that we had all seen before" received rejection.<ref name="WackyRockoDesignProcess">"[http://joemurraystudio.com/blog/?p=223#comments August 15, 2008 Excerpt from my new book “Crafting A Cartoon”; From a chapter on “Story”.]." ''Joe Murray Studio''. Accessed August 18, 2008.</ref>

Jeff "Swampy" Marsh, a storyboard writer, says that writers of ''Rocko's Modern Life'' targeted children and adults. He cites ''[[Rocky and Bullwinkle]]'' as an example of another series that contains references undecipherable by children and understood by adults. Aiming for a similar goal, Marsh described the process as "a hard job." According to him, when censors questioned proposed material, sometimes the team disagreed with the opinions of the censors and sometimes the team agreed with the rationale of the censors. He says that "many people" told him that the team "succeeded in this endevour" {{sic}} and that "many parents I know really enjoyed watching the show with their kids for just this reason." <ref name="Marsh">"[http://www.title14.com/rocko/contributors/interview.html Dan Abrams' interview with Jeff "Swampy" Marsh]," ''The Rocko's Modern Life FAQ''</ref> John Pacenti said the series "seems very much aimed at adults" "for a children's' cartoon."<ref>"[http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=SL&p_theme=sl&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EB04E82739E0935&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM Nickelodeon's `Rocko' Revels In Dysfunction]." ''[[St. Louis Post-Dispatch]]''</ref> Marsh believes that the material written by [[Doug Lawrence]] stands as an example of a "unique sense of humor." For instance, Marsh credits Lawrence with the "[[pineapple]] references" adding that Lawrence believed that pineapples seemed humorous. <ref name="Marsh"/>

=== Animation style ===

Murray's animation lacked parallel lines and featured many crooked doors. In an interview he stated that his design style contributed to the show's "Wonky bent feel." <ref name="TrainorMurray"/> Jean Prescott of ''[[The Sun Herald]]'' described the series as "squash-and-stretch."<ref>Prescott, Jean. "[http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=BX&s_site=sunherald&p_multi=BX&p_theme=realcities&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&p_topdoc=1&p_text_direct-0=0EB624033690585A&p_field_direct-0=document_id&p_perpage=10&p_sort=YMD_date:D&s_trackval=GooglePM Rocko and the Gang Take On Pollution]." ''[[The Sun Herald]]''. Page M28. April 19, 1996.</ref> A 1993 ''[[Houston Chronicle]]'' article described the series's setting as having a "reality that is "squashed and stretched" into a twisted version of real life."<ref>"[http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=1993_1154116 Cartoon choices to animate the mornings]." ''[[Houston Chronicle]]''. September 18, 1993.</ref> The background staff hand-painted backgrounds with Dr. Martin Dyes <ref name="RockoArchivesMurray"/>, while each episode title card consisted of an original painting.<ref name="RockoArchivesMurray"/> [[Linda Simensky]] said that she asked the creators of ''Rocko's Modern Life'' about why the women in the series were drawn to be "top-heavy," the creators told her that they believed that drawing women "the traditional way" was easier. Simensky described the creators as "talented guys" who formed "a boy's club" and added that "we pushed them to be funny, but a lot of their women are [[stereotypical]]."<ref>[[Maureen Furniss|Furniss, Maureen]]. ''Art in Motion: Animation Aesthetics''. ''[[Indiana University Press]]''. [http://books.google.com/books?id=aQ4mrirF5nkC&pg=RA2-PA240&dq=Rocko+cartoon&lr=&sig=yBazOcnam1xNXnEQ2jcpLYaBubI 240].</ref>

=== Music ===

There are 3 versions of the Rocko's Modern Life theme song. The first and original version can be heard playing throughout season one and was composed by Pat Irwin, who also composed the series' background music. The second version of the theme song was a slightly remixed version of the first and was only used during episodes 8 and 9 of season one. One of the changes included high pitched voices added to the chorus. The third version of the theme song was performed by [[Kate Pierson]] and [[Fred Schneider]] from [[The B-52's]]. They performed the ''Rocko's Modern Life'' theme song from Season 2 onwards.

At first Murray wanted Paul Sumares to perform the theme song since Sumares created most of the music found in ''My Dog Zero.'' Murray wanted the same style in ''My Dog Zero'' exhibited in ''Rocko's Modern Life''. Nickelodeon wanted a person with more experience.<ref name="Sumares"/> According to Sumares, believing for the request to be a long shot, Murray asked for [[Danny Elfman]] and felt stunned when Nickelodeon decided to honor his request by asking Elfman to perform.<ref name="Sumares"/> According to Murray, Elfman, his first choice, was booked. Therefore he chose the B-52's, his second choice.<ref name="Sumares"/> According to Sumares Murray decided to use the B-52's instead of Elfman. Murray states that the difference between the stories "could just be a recollection conflict, because Paul is a brilliant amazing guy."<ref name="Sumares"/> Murray also sought [[Alan Silvestri]]. According to Sumares Viacom did not want to use Silvestri as the organization wanted a band "slightly older kids could identify with." <ref name="Sumares"/>

== Plot ==
{{Refimprovesect|date=December 2008}}
The plot follows life of a [[wallaby]], [[Rocko]], who has emigrated to America from Australia. In America, he is faced with various problems and challenges involving his pals who try to teach him what it means to be a good friend. There are sexual innuendos such as references to body parts including nipples, breasts, testicles and others.
Many of the locations in the television show ''Rocko's Modern Life'' have the letter "O" for example O-Town and Conglom-O. When asked about the use of "O" in his show Murray said,{{quote|I always got a big kick out of the businesses that were 'House-O-Paint', or 'Ton-O-Noodles', because their names seemed to homogenize what they sold, and strip the products of true individuality and stress volume ... and we all know, the American dream is volume! So what better company to create volume than 'Conglom-O', and since a majority of the town worked at Conglom-O, it should be called 'O' Town. I also wanted the town to be 'anytown' USA, and I used to love sports players with a big ZERO on their back. It was funny to me. <ref name="TrainorMurray"/>}}

The plot locations included the following:

* '''O-Town''' is the town in which Rocko lives.
* '''Chokey Chicken''' is a favorite restaurant/hang-out place for Rocko, [[Heffer Wolfe|Heffer]], and [[Filburt]]. Through the first part of the fourth season it was called 'Chewy Chicken.'
* '''Conglom-O Corporation''' is the biggest company in town; it even runs City Hall. Mr. Dupette, who has very peculiar ways to see if the employees are fit to work there, manages Conglom-O. Conglom-O does not seem to have a specific purpose or product—it is a giant company that manufactures many products. Conglom-O's slogan is always shown beneath its name. The slogan is "We own you," revealing in a later musical episode that they own everything in O-Town. When Ed Bighead was shown to work at Conglom-O in 1961, the slogan stated "We Will Own You" (alluding to the future of [[megacorporation]]s). The illustration that appears with the logo and on top of the official Conglom-O Corp. skyscraper is a [[martini]] glass with the [[earth]] in place of an [[olive]].
* '''[[Hell|Heck]]''' is where "bad people" go when they die. Run by [[Peaches]], it is where Heffer is doomed to eternal suffering. The televisions in Heck do not have remotes.
* '''Holl-o-Wood''' is a town that resembles the [[Hollywood]] section of [[Los Angeles]], [[California]].* '''Kind of a Lot O' Comics''' is a [[comic book]] store where Rocko works.

== Characters ==
{{main|Characters in Rocko's Modern Life}}All the characters in the ''Rocko's Modern Life'' series are animals and there are a multitude. Murray said that he matched personalities of his characters to the various animals in the series to form a "social [[caricature]]".<ref name="CNMurrayInterview"/> [[Rocko]], the protagonist, is a wallaby who encounters various dilemmas and situations regarding otherwise mundane aspects of life. His best friend [[Heffer Wolfe]] is fat and enthusiastic while [[Filburt]] often feels uncomfortable or disturbed.

* [[Carlos Alazraqui]] as the voice of [[Rocko]], [[Spunky]], Leon and Granny Rocko
* [[Tom Kenny]] as the voice of [[Heffer Wolfe]], Chuck, Mr. Smitty, Really Really Big Man, Peaches and various males
* [[Doug Lawrence|Mr. Lawrence]] as the voice of [[Filburt]] and Peter Wolfe
* [[Linda Wallem]] as the voice of Dr. Hutchison, Mrs. Virginia Wolfe, Grandma Wolfe, Cindy Wolfe, Tammy the Pig, and various females* [[Charles Adler (voice actor)|Charlie Adler]] as the voice of [[Ed Bighead]], Gladys, Mr. George Wolfe, Grandpa Wolfe, [[Bev Bighead]], Mr. Dupette, Mr. and Mrs. Fathead and various males

== Crew ==

* [[Joe Murray]]: Creator, Executive Producer, Writer, Story Editor (Season 1 - 3)
* [[Andy Houts]]: Project Coordinator
* [[Stephen Hillenburg]]: Producer, Storyboard Director, Writer, Creative Director
* [[Derek Drymon]]: Storyboard Artist, Writer
* [[Doug Lawrence|Mr. Lawrence]]: Storyboard Director, Writer
* [[Dan Povenmire]]: Storyboard Director, Writer
* [[Jeff "Swampy" Marsh|Swampy Marsh]]: Storyboard Director, Writer
* [[Timothy Berglund]] (aka Timothy Björklund): Storyboard Director, Writer
* [[Martin Olson]]: Writer
* [[George Maestri]]: Writer
* Peter Burns: Writer
* [[Gary Conrad]] and [[Merriwether Williams]]: Writer
* [[Vince Calandra]]: Writer
* [[Tim Hill]]: Story Editor (on Season 4 only)
* [[Mark O'Hare]]: Storyboard Artist
* [[Robert Hughes]]: Animation Director
* Antoine Guilbaud: Storyboard Artist
* [[Tom Yasumi]]: Animation Timer, animation director
* [[Danny Antonucci]]: Storyboard artist
* Jeff Myers: Storyboard Director
* Kevin O' Brien: Storyboard artist
* Joe Suggs: Storyboard Artist
* [[Conrad Vernon]]: Storyboard Artist
* Bert Ring: Storyboard Artist
* [[Alan Smart]]: animation director
* George Chilatas: animation director
* Nick Jennings: storyboard artist
* [[Pete Michels]]: animation director
* [[Chris Savino]]: animation artist
* [[Howy Parkins]]: animation director
* Roger Chiassen: writer/storyboard director
* Robert McNally Scull writer/storyboard artist* [[Pat Irwin]]: Music composer

</div>

== Reception ==Murray said that the cartoon "resonated" with people because the scenarios depicted in the cartoon involving "the neurosis, the daily chores of everyday life" were based on Murray's own experiences "breaking out into the world" after leaving school.<ref>"[http://joemurraystudio.com/blog/?p=1072 June 3, 2009]." Joe Murray Studio Blog. Retrieved on June 5, 2009.</ref> On September 19, 1993, the series's first night of airing, ''Rocko's Modern Life'' received a 3.0 in ratings. By January 31, 1994 the series's audience grew by 65%.<ref name="Brandweek"/>

Ted Drozdowski of ''[[The Boston Phoenix]]'' stated in the "Eye pleasers" article that he enjoyed ''Rocko's Modern Life'' because of "jovial excitement," "good-hearted outrage," "humanity," and "pushy animated characterizations."<ref>"[http://bostonphoenix.com/archive/tv/97/05/TEN_REASONS.html Eye pleasers]," ''[[The Boston Phoenix]]''. May 8-15, 1997. Retrieved on March 1, 2009.</ref>

A music video, called "Well, I'm Just a Wallaby" by [[Lloyd Cole]] was made for Nickelodeon.{{Fact|date=March 2009}}

=== Awards ===

Timothy J. Borquez, Patrick Foley, Michael Giesler, Michael A. Gollorn, William B. Griggs, Tom Jeager, Gregory LaPlante, Timothy Mertens, and Kenneth Young of ''Rocko's Modern Life'' received a 1993 [[Daytime Emmy Award]] for "Outstanding Achievement in Film Sound Editing."<ref>''Chase's Annual Events'' (1995). Published 1994. ISBN 0809236346. [http://books.google.com/books?id=_-5OAAAAMAAJ&q=Rocko's+Modern+Life&dq=Rocko's+Modern+Life&pgis=1 515].</ref>

[[George Maestri]] was nominated for a [[CableACE Award]] for his ''Rocko's Modern Life'' writing.<ref>"[http://www.peachpit.com/authors/bio.aspx?a=d8dc09dc-d7c3-4e83-b0f0-f01e1af54d77&rll=1 George Maestri]." ''Peachpit Press''. Retrieved on March 1, 2009.</ref><ref>[[George Maestri|Maestri, George]]. "[http://art.ju.edu/billhill/teach/cma/walk.pdf Learning to Walk]." ''[[Jacksonville University]]''. April 1997. Retrieved on March 1, 2009.</ref>

The series won an award as part of the [[Environmental Media Awards]] in 1996.<ref>"[http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/16444859.html?dids=16444859:16444859&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Oct+15%2C+1996&author=ART+BERMAN&pub=Los+Angeles+Times+(pre-1997+Fulltext)&desc=Arts+and+entertainment+reports+from+The+Times%2C+national+and+international+news+services+and+the+nation%27s+press.&pqatl=google Arts and entertainment reports from The Times, national and international news services and the nation's press.]." ''[[Los Angeles Times]]''. October 15, 1996. Accessed June 20, 2008.</ref>

=== Reviews ===

Ken Tucker of ''[[Entertainment Weekly]]'' described the series as "a witless rip-off of [[Ren & Stimpy]]: [[mucus]] jokes without the redeeming surrealism or contempt for authority." Tucker rated the series "D."<ref name="KenTurnerEntertainmentWeekly">Tucker, Ken. "[http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,302711,00.html Turn the Beat 'Around]." ''[[Entertainment Weekly]].'' June 17, 1994. Issue 227. 40. 2p, 5c.</ref> <!-- You can find it on EBSCO Host -->

''Common Sense Media'' reviewer Andrea Graham, whose review is posted on [[Go.com]], describes Rocko's Modern Life as "somewhat edgy" and gave the series four out of five stars. Graham tells parents to watch for "[[sexual innuendos]]." <ref>"[http://family.go.com/entertainment/article-csm-80290-tv-review--rocko-s-modern-life-t/ TV Review: Rocko's Modern Life]," ''Common Sense Media'' on [[Go.com]]</ref>

== Other broadcasts ==

In 1994 the series aired on [[MTV]].<ref name="KenTurnerEntertainmentWeekly"/> In [[Malaysia]] ''Rocko's Modern Life'' aired in ''[[MetroVision]]'' around 1996.<ref>Proctor, Melanie. "TV bonanza for children." ''[[New Straits Times]]''. May 29, 1996. Arts Section, Page 3.</ref>In the early 2000s Nickelodeon Japan marketed the show along with ''[[The Ren and Stimpy Show]]''.<ref>"[http://web.archive.org/web/20031214022409/www.nickjapan.com/nick_tvshow/ren_rocko.html Ren and Stimpy and Rocko's Modern Life]" as of December 14, 2003. ''[[Nickelodeon Japan]]''. Retrieved on March 1, 2009.</ref> In Australia, it was shown on ABC Kids.<ref>"[http://www.abc.net.au/abckids/shows/prog136.htm Rocko's Modern Life]." ''ABC Kids''. Accessed October 4, 2008.</ref>

== Rocko's DVD ==

Fans have requested that Nickelodeon produce a [[DVD]] collection of the series for years. In 2008 Nickelodeon partnered with [[Amazon.com]] to allow new and old programming to be made available on DVD through [[Amazon.com#Acquisitions and spinoffs|CreateSpace]]. As part of the deal Amazon.com is responsible for producing the discs (on [[DVD-R|one time burnable media]]) on-demand as well as cover and disc art.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://tvshowsondvd.com/news/Site-News-Nickelodeon-Amazon-CreateSpace/10375 |title=Amazon and Nickelodeon/Paramount Strike Deal for Burn-on-Demand Titles |accessdate=2008-08-24 |work=Site News |publisher= |date=2008-08-21 }}</ref> Two DVDs were released on September 16, 2008.<ref>"[http://www.amazon.com/dp/B001EHDSRU The Best of Rocko's Modern Life- Volume 1 (2 Disc Set)]." ''[[Amazon.com]]''. Accessed September 18, 2008.</ref><ref>"[http://www.amazon.com/dp/B001EHDSS4 The Best of Rocko's Modern Life- Volume 2 (2 Disc Set)]." ''[[Amazon.com]]''. Accessed September 18, 2008.</ref>

Prior to the official DVD releases, Murray stated that he has not heard of any plans for a DVD release and that there are several illegal DVD releases of the series sold on [[eBay]]. He commented, "But at least someone is trying to give Rocko fans what they want. Because Nickelodeon sure isn't doing it." <ref>"[http://web.archive.org/web/20080113233738/http://www.joemurraystudio.com/bio/answers.shtml Answers to Frequently Asked Questions]," ''[[Joe Murray]] Studios'' (January 2008 archive)</ref> Murray worked with his legal team to regain the rights, so that an official DVD can be released.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://joemurraystudio.com/blog/?p=165|title=Joe Murray's Journal entry for July 17, 2008|publisher=Joe Murray Studios}}</ref>

The official home video release of the series in the United States was in 1995, when selected episodes were released on [[VHS]] by [[Sony Wonder]].<ref>"[http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-6328852_ITM New video releases for children.(Originated from Knight-Ridder Newspapers)]." ''Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service''</ref> [[Paramount Pictures#Paramount Home Entertainment|Paramount Home Entertainment]] later re-released the episodes in 1997 and 1998.<ref>"[http://www.amazon.com/dp/6304489633 Rocko's Modern Life: With Friends Like These (1993)]," ''[[Amazon.com]]''</ref><ref>"[http://www.amazon.com/dp/6304747500 "Rocko's Modern Life: Modern Love (1993)]," ''[[Amazon.com]]''. Accessed June 20, 2008.</ref>

Select episodes from the first season of the show have been released on [[iTunes]] as part of the Nick Rewind releases. [[iTunes]] has a "Best of Vol. 1" collection of 6 Rocko episodes

<div align = "center">

: Episode 9a - Carnival Knowledge
: Episode 9b - Sand In The Navel
: Episode 8a - A Sucker for the Suck-O-Matic
: Episode 8b - Canned
: Episode 11a - Rocko's Happy Sack: Episode 11b - Flu-in-u-enza <u>Disc-2</u><br> : Episode 12a - Who's For Dinner
: Episode 12b - Love Spanked
: Episode 13a - Clean Lovin
: Episode 13b - Unbalanced Load
: Episode 2a - Leap Frogs: Episode 2b - Bedfellows
-| Best of...<br />Volume 2 September 16, 2008 2 <u>Disc-1</u>

: Episode 1a - No Pain, No Gain
: Episode 1b - Who Gives A Buck?
: Episode 3a - Jet Scream
: Episode 3b - Dirty Dog
: Episode 4a - Keeping Up with the Bigheads: Episode 4b - Skid Marks

<u>Disc-2</u><br>

: Episode 6a - The Good, The Bad, and the Wallaby
: Episode 6b - [[Trash-O-Madness]]
: Episode 5a - Power Trip
: Episode 5b - To Heck and Back
: Episode 7a - Spitballs
: Episode 7b - Popcorn Pandemonium
: Episode 10a - Cabin Fever
: Episode 10b - Rinse And Spit: Bonus features a Rocko's Modern Life music video.

}

</div>

Together, these two DVD releases contain the complete first season.

== Marvel Comics series ==

=== Episodes and comic book chapters ==={{Main|Rocko's Modern Life media and release information}}

[[Image:RockoVol4Issue1.PNG|100px|thumb|Volume 1, Issue 4 of <nowiki>''Rocko's Modern Life'' comic]]</nowiki>

During [[Tom DeFalco]]'s Editor-in-Chief career, [[Marvel Comics]] produced a seven-issue [[comic book]] series based on the television series.<ref>"[http://books.google.com/books?id=YfFeHAAACAAJ&dq=Rocko%27s+Modern+Life Rocko's Modern Life]" Information, ''[[Google Books]]''</ref> Marvel published the series from June 1994 to December 1994 with monthly releases.

[[Nickelodeon (TV channel)|Nickelodeon]] approached Marvel, asking the company to produce comic book series for ''Rocko's Modern Life'' and ''[[Ren and Stimpy]]''. Marvel purchased the license for Rocko from Nickelodeon. The staff created the comics, and Susan Luposniak, a Nickelodeon employee<ref name="LetterToEditor3">"That's Life," ''Rocko's Modern Life''. [[Marvel Comics]]. Volume 1, Issue 3.</ref>, examined the comics before they were released. <ref name="LetterstoEditor4">"That's Life," ''Rocko's Modern Life''. [[Marvel Comics]]. Volume 1, Issue 4.</ref> Joe Murray said in a December 2, 2008 blog entry that he drew some of the pages in the comic book series.<ref>"[http://joemurraystudio.com/blog/?p=671 December 2, 2008]." ''Joe Murray Studio''. Accessed on December 4, 2008.</ref>

The comics contain stories not seen in the television show. In addition, the comic book series omits some television show characters and places, while some original places and characters appear in the comics. [[John Lewandowski|John "Lewie" Lewandowski]] wrote all of the stories except for one; [[Joey Cavalieri]] wrote "Beaten by a Club," the second story of Issue #4.

Troy Little, a resident of [[Monroe, Oregon]], wrote to Marvel requesting that the title for the comic's [[comic book letter column|letters column]] should be "That's Life." In Issue 3, published in August 1994, the editors decided to use the title for the comic's "Letters to the Editor" section.<ref name="LetterToEditor3"/><ref name="LetterstoEditor4"/> In Issue 5, published in October 1994, the editors stated that they still received suggestions for the title for the comic even though the editors had decided on using "That's Life" by Issue 3.<ref>"That's Life," ''Rocko's Modern Life''. [[Marvel Comics]]. Volume 1, Issue 5.</ref>

== Merchandise ==

[[Image:RockosModernLifeSpunkysDD.jpg|100px|thumb|<nowiki>''Spunky's Dangerous Day</nowiki>'' video game]]

By January 31, 1994 Nickelodeon received ten "licensing partners" for merchandise for the series.<ref name="Brandweek"/> [[Hardee's]] distributed ''Rocko'' toys.<ref>"[http://www.retrojunk.com/details_commercial/4917/ Nickelodeon at Hardees]." Hosted by ''RetroJunk''.</ref> [[Viacom New Media]] released one game based on the show, ''[[Rocko's Modern Life: Spunky's Dangerous Day]]'', in the United States for the [[Super Nintendo Entertainment System]]. In addition, ''[[Nickelodeon 3-D Movie Maker]]'' features various characters from the show. Rocko also appeared in the game ''[[Nicktoons: Attack of the Toybots]]''. Nick.com created two free online games featuring Rocko, using [[SWF|Shockwave Flash]] (which requires the Shockwave [[Plug-in (computing)|plugin]]).<ref>

{{cite web|url=http://www.nick.com/games/puzzle-games/rocko_match.jhtml|title=Nick Games - Rocko's Modern Life: Match Master|publisher=www.nick.com|accessdate=2008-11-02}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.nick.com/games/puzzle-games/rocko_slider.jhtml|title=Nick Games - Rocko's Modern Life: Slider|publisher=www.nick.com|accessdate=2008-11-02}}</ref>

== Nickelodeon's website safety guide ==

In the late 1990s and early-to-mid 2000s<ref>http://web.archive.org/web/19991007070042/http://nick.com/inits/safety/</ref><ref>"[http://web.archive.org/web/20050403155027/www.nick.com/blab/safety/index.jhtml A Byte-Size Online Safety Guide]" as of April 3, 2005, ''[[Nickelodeon (TV channel)|Nickelodeon]]''</ref> Nickelodeon used ''Rocko's Modern Life'' characters in several short comics collected under the title "A Byte-Size Online Safety Guide" explaining [[netiquette]], [[internet security]], and internet safety to readers of Nick.com.

== See also =={{portalpar|Nickelodeon}}

* [[List of programs broadcast by Nickelodeon]]
* [[List of animated television series]]
* ''[[Camp Lazlo]]''* ''[[SpongeBob SquarePants]]'' (created by creative director, [[Stephen Hillenburg]])

== References =={{reflist|2}}

== External links =={{wikiquote}}

* [http://www.nickelodeon.com.au/toonroom/xtoonroomrml.php Rocko at Nickelodeon Australia website]
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20051106122840/http://nick.co.uk/nicktoons/shows/rocko/index.aspx Rocko at Nickelodeon UK website] (Archive)
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20041117155740/www.nicksplat.com/Tvshows/Showsinfo/Nicktoons/Rockos_modern_life/ Archive of Nickelodeon Southeast Asia Rocko's Modern Life website] (Archive)
* [http://www.nick.de/index.php?id=102 Rockos Modernes Leben] (Germany)* {{imdb title|0106115}}

* {{tv.com|3361|Rocko's Modern Life}}

* ''[http://www.bcdb.com/cartoons/Other_Studios/G/Games_Animation/Rocko_s_Modern_Life/index.html Rocko's Modern Life]'' at the [[Big Cartoon DataBase]]
* ''[http://www.title14.com/rocko/ Rocko's Modern Life FAQ] - Includes interviews with "Rocko" creator, and production staff
* "[http://web.archive.org/web/20070208123640/www.nick.com/all_nick/tv_supersites/display_show.jhtml?show_id=roc Rocko's Modern Life]" (Archive) at Nick.com* [http://books.google.com/books?id=VqaAnj88gKYC&pg=PT218&dq=Rocko%27s+Modern+Life&sig=hGnOkJ77LUl1Cj0M7xa35_O2gVc#PPT218,M1 Image of Rocko crew in one photograph]

{{Rocko's Modern Life}}

{{Nicktoons}}

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